WHAT IS ECTOPIC PREGNANCY?
An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fertilized egg implants somewhere other than the main cavity of the uterus.Pregnancy begins with a fertilized egg; normally the fertilized egg attaches itself to the lining of the uterus.
Usually an ectopic pregnancy cant proceed normally, the fertilized egg cant survive, and the growing tissue might destroy various maternal structures. Left untreated, life-threatening blood loss is possible.
TYPES OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
(1) TUBAL PREGNANCY: A tubal pregnancy occurs when the egg has implanted in the fallopian tube. This is the most common type of ectopic pregnancy and the majority of ectopic pregnancies are tubal pregnancy.
(2) NON – TUBAL ECTOPIC: Nearly two percent of all ectopic pregnancies become established in other areas including the ovary, the cervix or the intra-abdominal region.
(3) HETEROTOPIC PREGNANCY: In some rare cases, one fertilized egg implants inside the uterus and another implant outside of the structure. The ectopic pregnancy is often discover before the intra-uterine pregnancy, mainly due to the painful nature of ectopic pregnancy.
CAUSES OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
- A tubal pregnancy- The most common type of ectopic pregnancy – happens when a fertilized egg stuck on its way to the uterus, often because the fallopian tube is damaged by inflammation or is misshapen.
- Hormonal imbalances or abnormal development of the fertilized egg also might play a role.
SYMPTOMS OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
- ABDOMINAL PAINS.
- ABSENCE OF MENSTRUAL PERIODS (AMENORRHEA)
- VAGINAL BLEEDING OR INTERMITTENT BLEEDING (SPOTTING)
RISK FACTOR OF AN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
- PREVIOUS ECTOPIC PREGNANCY: If you’ve had one ectopic pregnancy, you’re more likely to have another.
- INFLAMMATION OR INFECTION: Inflammation of the fallopian tube (salpingitis) or an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes or ovaries (pelvic inflammatory diseases) increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Often these infections are caused by gonorrhea or Chlamydia.
- FERTILITY ISSUES: Some research suggests an association between difficulties with fertility-as well use of fertility drugs and ectopic pregnancy.
- STRUCTURAL CONCERNS: An ectopic pregnancy is more likely if you have a usually shaped fallopian tube or the fallopian tube was damaged, possibly during surgery. Even surgery to reconstruct the fallopian tube can increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
- CONTRACEPTIVE CHOICE: Pregnancy when using an intrauterine device (IUD) is rare. If pregnancy occurs, however it’s more likely to be ectopic. The same goes for pregnancy after tubal ligation-a permanent method of birth control commonly known as “having your tubes tied”. Although pregnancy after tubal ligation is rare, if it happens, it’s more likely to be ectopic.
- SMOKING: Cigarette smoking just before you get pregnant can increase the risk of an ectopic pregnancy. And the more you smoke, the greater the risk.
WHAT IS THE COMPLICATION OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY?
- LIFE-THREATENING INTERNAL BLEEDING: When you have an ectopic pregnancy, the stack are high. without treatment a ruptured fallopian tube could lead to a life threaten bleeding.
HOW IS AN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY DIAGNOSED?
- PELVIC EXAMINATION: A pelvic examination to check for pain, tenderness, or a mass in the fallopian tube or ovary might be carry out.
- IMAGING STUDIES (ULTRASOUND): With a standard ultrasound high frequency sound wave are directed at the tissues in the abnormal area.
- BLOOD TEST: In diagnosing an Ectopic pregnancy, medical professionals are likely to undertake some or all of the following tests.
- Urinary pregnancy test
- Serial HcG Blood test
- In early cases or early detection an injection of the drug methotrexate is sometimes used to stop cell growth and dissolve existing cell. its imperative that the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is certain before this treatment is undertaken.
- Laparascopic surgery
- If the ectopic pregnancy is causing heavy bleeding or the fallopian tube has ruptured, you might need emergency surgery such as below.